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Colonizing Titan (Saturn’s Moon)

In many films and science fiction novels Titan, the main moon of Saturn, is presented as a world to be colonized or as a base inhabited by strange beings, or as a colony inhabited by terrestrials in exile. But could Titan’s conditions be suitable for hosting humans? Would it be possible to colonize this world? And why is Titan interesting from this point of view?
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itan is the second largest moon in the solar system after Ganymede, one of the main Jupiter satellites, and is even larger than the planet Mercury! Indeed it has a diameter of about 5150 km, while the diameter of the small Mercury stands at just over 4879 km. Titan is the main satellite of Saturn, and was discovered by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens with a refracting telescope of 57 mm in diameter and 310 mm in focal length, who called it, in Latin, “Luna Saturni”. It was the first natural satellite to be discovered after the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. The current name “Titan” was proposed by the astronomer John Herschel, son of the more famous William Herschel, in honour of the Titans of Greek mythology.
Titan travels its orbit around Saturn in about 15 days at a distance of about 1221830 km from the great planet: this distance is equal to just over three times the average distance Earth – Moon, so if you left from Saturn traveling at the same speed as the Apollo lunar spaceships, to reach Titan you would take roughly ten days: in short, a long journey but after all still feasible for a holiday out of town, if you are already in the neighbourhood of Saturn. But pay attention, leaving from the Earth to Titan, the matter is very different: we remember that Saturn is located about 9 astronomical units from the Sun: an astronomical unit is defined as the average distance between Earth and Sun and is equal to about 150 million of kilometers. So Saturn is 9 times farther from the Sun than the Earth! And this journey takes a few years: the NASA Cassini probe, named in honour of the Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini, a great scholar of Saturn and its rings, was launched from Earth in 1997, and entered into orbit around Saturn only in 2004. So how do you go about taking a human crew there? Whatever form of propulsion you choose has pros and cons: for example, you could use rockets like the current ones, whose technology is already available and above all well tested and reliable, but the cons is that you have to transport large quantities of fuel, and this translates into the need to build large tanks, which add a lot of weight to the ship. And if a spaceship is heavy it is much more difficult to take off from Earth … An alternative could be to use a thermoelectric radioisotope generator such as those of the Cassini spacecraft, based on the decay of radioactive isotopes, but here too a problem arises: how to protect astronauts from the radiation produced by such thrusters?
Furthermore, unlike a robotic spacecraft like Cassini, a manned space mission has much more complex needs: for a very long period (in the case of Titan seven years) it is necessary to guarantee water, food, oxygen in the right quantities for survival. And this translates into the need to build a spaceship large enough to carry adequate supplies. However, there are at least two other major problems concerning interplanetary human space flight: radiation and the psychological aspect. As far as radiation is concerned, as long as a spaceship or a space station is in a low orbit around the Earth, they are quite sheltered from cosmic rays and solar radiation because they are still located within the Earth’s magnetosphere.
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